III. Citing References

Anthropological and sociological writing typically uses in-text references rather than footnotes. The following information reflects the style conventions of the American Anthropologist, the journal of the American Anthropological Association, and the American Sociological Review, the journal of the American Sociological Association.

There are several ways to cite a reference in both anthropological and sociological writing depending on how you are is using it in the text. We will use this quote as an example:

These potential or real disadvantages and shortcomings of short-term medical missions have, in my opinion, little if anything to do with local health conditions or delivery systems but everything to do with the worldview and cultural assumptions about health, poverty, and assistance that inform their design and implementation.

The full bibliographic reference for this quote in the style of the American Anthropologist (AA) is:

Montgomery, Laura M.

1993 Short-term Medical Missions: Enhancing or Eroding Health? Missiology: An International Review 21(3):333-341.

In the style of the American Sociological Review (ASR) the reference looks like this:

Montgomery, Laura M. 1993. "Short-term Medical Missions: Enhancing or Eroding Health?" Missiology: An International Review 21(3):333-41.

Although the two journals use different bibliographic styles (more information provided below), they use the same format for citing quotes within the text. References within the text include the author and the year of publication. Page numbers are also used if your text quotes directly from the work or refers to a specific passage. Other formatting conventions for in-text references:

1. If two authors give both last names–(Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman 1981)
2. Separate a series of references with a semicolon–(Calvalli-Sforza and Feldman 1981; Bender 1978).
3. If more than two authors are listed, use "et al." after the first name. However in your bibliography, spell out all names.
4. When a work has no date of publication use "n.d." in place of a year.

The following are examples of the different ways the above quote would be cited depending on its usage.

A. A direct quote

One author assesses the problems of medical missions in this way:

These potential or real disadvantages and shortcomings of short-term medical missions have, in my opinion, little if anything to do with local health conditions or delivery systems but everything to do with the worldview and cultural assumptions about health, poverty, and assistance that inform their design and implementation. [Montgomery 1993:338]

Note in this example that you place the reference within brackets after the final punctuation mark of the quote. You place a colon after the year of publication and list the page number or numbers where the quote is located in the original work.

1. Another way of using a direct quote :

Montgomery (1993:338) assesses the problems of medical missions in this way:

These potential or real disadvantages and shortcomings of short-term medical missions have, in my opinion, little if anything to do with local health conditions or delivery systems but everything to do with the worldview and cultural assumptions about health, poverty, and assistance that inform their design and implementation.

Please note that the year of publication and the page number where the quote is found are placed in parentheses after the author’s name.

B. A summary statement or paraphrase of the quote:

Montgomery (1993) argues that the cultural assumptions informing short-term medical missions are responsible for most of the disadvantages associated with such projects.

Notice here that only the year of publication is placed in parentheses after the author’s name.

C. Additional information on proper citations

1. A full bibliographic reference must be given for each in-text citation.
2. Within a paragraph you need to provide a reference every time you borrow some thought or wording from another. It is insufficient to provide only a reference at the end of the paragraph. Failure to do so constitutes plagiarism.