V. Bibliographic References
As noted in Section III, the reference for a source is included in the text. The full bibliographic information for each reference is presented at the end of the work alphabetized under the heading "Bibliography" or "References." If you use two or more sources by the same author(s), list them in order of the year of publication. If you use two or more sources by the same author(s) that were published in the same year, distinguish them (in the order mentioned in the text) by adding the letters a, b, c, etc., to the year.
Only sources that are cited in the text are to be placed in the bibliography.
Unless instructed otherwise, we, the faculty, expect you to use professional, academic resources in your work. Newspapers and popular magazines are inappropriate as primary sources in college-level work. Some examples of these non-academic works include
Time, Newsweek, Psychology Today, The New Yorker, Christianity Today, and
The Atlantic Monthly. Please consult your professor if you have questions about the appropriateness of any work.
As you will have noted in Section III, sociology and anthropology sometimes use different bibliographic formats. Unless your professor indicates that you should use one form or the other, you may choose either that of the American Sociological Review or the American Anthropologist.
Once you have chosen a format, stick with it and be consistent. Below you will find examples of both formats.
A. American Sociological Review
- Book: Cohen, Mark N. 1977. The Food Crisis in Prehistory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
- Book with multiple authors:
Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. and M.W. Feldman. 1981. Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
- Journal Article :
Bender, Barbara. 1978. "Gatherer-Hunter to Farmer: A Social Perspective."
World Archaeology 10:204-222.
- Article within an edited volume :
Li, Charles. 1986. "Direct and Indirect Speech: A Functional Study." Pp. 29-45 in
Direct and Indirect Speech, edited by Florian Coulmas. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
- Electronic Resources :
Most disciplines are only now standardizing the format for citing electronic resources. At the very minimum, this information should be provided: Author, date published, title, the web address, and the date you accessed the material. See your professor if you have questions.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1993. "Middle Class Income" <http://www.census.gov/hhes/income/midclass/h2all.html>. May 16, 997.
- Interviews :
Rafael Garcia. 1984. "Interview." Mexicali, B.C., Mexico. March 15, 1984.
B. American Anthropologist
- Book: Cohen, Mark N. 1977 The Food Crisis in Prehistory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Book with multiple authors :
Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. and M.W. Feldman 1981 Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
- Journal Article : Bender, Barbara 1978 Gatherer-Hunter to Farmer: A Social Perspective. World Archaeology 10:204-222.
Article with an edited volume :
1986 Direct and Indirect Speech: A Functional Study. In Direct and Indirect Speech. Florian Coulmas, ed. Pp. 29-45. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Electronic Resources :
U.S. Bureau of the Census
1993 Middle Class Income. <http://www.census.gov/hhes/ income/midclass/h2all.html>. May 16,1997.
1984 Interview. Mexicali, B.C., Mexico. March 15, 1984.
FOR EXAMPLES OF OTHER TYPES OF MATERIALS, YOU MAY CHECK THE ON-LINE STYLE GUIDES FOR THE AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW OR THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST.
- American Anthropologists
- American Sociological Review http://www.asanet.org/documents/teaching/pdfs/Quick_Tips_for_ASA_Style.pdf
- American Anthropologists
C. The Internet and the World Wide Web
We encourage you to use the internet and the world wide web to find sources and information. However, because of the ephemeral nature and dubious reliability of many sites, please print the material you use, indicate the address of the site, and attach a copy of the material as an appendix to your work.