Jesus, Divine and Human:
The Development of Christological Doctrine

Sources: Frances Young, The Making of the Creeds (Trinity); Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith (T&T Clark); C. FitzSimons Allison, The Cruelty of Heresy (Morehouse); William Placher, A History of Christian Theology (Westminster).

I. Incarnation Basics
1. Humanity without compromise (Rom. 5:12-21, 1 Cor. 15, Heb. 2:14-18, 4:15-16)
2. Divinity without compromise (John 20:28, 1 Cor. 8:6, 1 Cor. 16:22, Phil. 2:5-11)
3. Unity (or personhood) without compromise
Heresies = compromises

II. How Incarnation Works
Basic affirmations: Nicea, 325 and Constantinople, 381

How are they one? Two schools of thought on "hypostatic union":
1. Alexandria: "Word-flesh" Christology (cf. John 1; Mary as theotokos)
(Dangers: Docetism, Arianism, Apollinarianism, Eutychian Monophysitism compromise Jesus' true humanity)
2. Antioch: "Word-man" Christology (cf. Mark 1)
(Dangers: Ebionism, Adoptionism, Nestorianism compromise Jesus' unity and even divinity)
Chalcedon's uncompromising compromise, 451 (Leo I):
Jesus is "one person in/of two natures"
In Christ divinity and humanity are "without confusion, change, division, or separation"
Communication of attributes (communicatio idiomata):
Each nature influences (without compromising) the other
"That which is not assumed cannot be redeemed" (Cappadocians)
Analogy: Red-hot iron (John of Damascus)