Sources: Brian Moynahan, The Faith (Doubleday, 2001); Jones, Wainwright and Arnold, eds., The Study of Spirituality (Oxford, 1986); Alexander Murray, "The Later Middle Ages" in Richard Harries and Henry Mayr-Harting, Christianity: Two Thousand Years (Oxford, 2001); F.L. Cross, ed., The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 2d ed. (Oxford, 1983); Carol Lee Flinders, Enduring Grace: Living Portraits of Seven Women Mystics (Harper, 1993).
Reading: 2 Cor. 12:1-10.
Expressions of Medieval Faith
Monasticism: Service to God and neighbor
Enthusiasm: Popular devotion, sometimes extreme
Mysticism: Direct contemplative experience of God's love
(Bernard of Clairvaux/Cistercians, Hildegard of Bingen, Julian of Norwich)
Pilgrimmage: Connection with holy history
(reliquaries; Stations of the Cross popularized by Francis)
Penance and mortification: pursuit of forgiveness and holiness (flagellants)
Scholasticism and education: faith seeking understanding
(Anselm, Dominic/Dominicans, universities, Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas)
Heresy, Inquisition: Zeal for orthodoxy
(Cathars/Albigensians reject the physical for the 'purely' spiritual; Dominicans)
Church building: Making sacred space (Chartres cathedral)
Mercy, evangelism (Francis/Franciscans)
Reform (property-owning Conventual Franciscans v. Spirituals, Observants, etc.)
Imitatio Christi (Thomas à Kempis)
Is This a Dead Church?
The Protestant Reformation was reform, not just "revival"