Apostolicity: Structures of the Missionary Church

I. From Apostles to Apostolicity
apostolos: Jesus (Heb 3:1), the Twelve (Matt 10:2),
Paul and Barnabas (Acts 14:14), others (Rom 16:7, Phil 2:25, 2 Cor 8:23).
Witness to the resurrection (Acts 1:26),
Head of Israel (Rev 21:14),
Foundation of the Church (Eph 2:20),
Missionary of the Gospel (Matt 10:2).
So the Twelve Apostles are irreplaceable foundations of the later Church.
Apostolicity names the later Church's fidelity to the earliest Church.
Apostolicity describes the Church's center and its mission across boundaries.

II. Catholic Apostolicity
The Holy Spirit communicates the Church through apostles' successors.
Thus bishops (episkopoi) and elders (presbuteroi) (Acts 20:28, Titus 1:5).
Antioch, Rome, and other prominent cities soon had monarchical bishops:
Polycarp of Smyrna, 100; Clement of Rome, 90; Ignatius of Antioch, 67.

III. Protestant Apostolicity
Formal apostolicity seemed at odds with biblical apostolicity.
Reformers: Apostolicity is fidelity to the apostles' canonical writings (Scripture).
Reform might change polity (Reformed, radical) or not (Anglican, Lutheran).
No clear New Testament pattern replaces episcopal leadership.
General models: Episcopal, presbyterian, congregational.
IV. "Spirit-Baptism" as (Sharing Christ's) Charismatic Anointing
All assume Church leadership is charismatic (Spirit-given) leadership.
Must charismata have a formal episcopal medium (Acts 8:17, 1 Tim. 4:14)?
Or arise spontaneously (Acts 10:44-48) and be confirmed in other ways?
Models of Spiritual giving of leadership:
Hierarchical/magisterial;
congregational/democratic;
inspirational/popular;
immediate/mystical;
spontaneous/unpredictable.

V. Missionary Apostolicity

Being sent into the world commits the Church to new works of the Spirit.
Apostolicity shifts as Scripture is canonized and creeds are developed.
Apostolicity changes further as the Church becomes "Constantinian" and as the Gospel moves beyond the Roman world.
Constant change means organic open-endedness and organizational variety.
No particular model has the last word on Church organization.
Development, primitivism, or both? The Church changes to stay the same.
Apostolicity discerns deep continuity with the original apostles and the Holy Spirit's sending into the eschatological frontier.

VI. Case Studies
1. Women's eligibility to the ordained congregational pastorate.
2. Celibate male priesthood.
3. Parachurch independence from churchly accountability.