Typing Instructions

Sections of a Paper

1. Title Page Required
    See example for format & placement
      Running head/ pagination, left justified
      Title, centered
      Author (your name), centered
      Institutional Affiliation, centered
      Author Note
2. Abstract Required
    Summary of paper; no more than 120 words
    Start on a new page (p. 2)
    Use block style (no indent on 1st line)
    Keyowrds at bottom
3. Body of Paper Required
    Start on a new page (p. 3)
    Repeat title at top of 1st page on 1st line, centered
4. References Required
    Use label: References
    Begin on a new page
    Center heading
    Alphabetize entries by last name of author(s)
    First line of each entry is left-justified. Successive lines are indented 0.5" (use hanging indent)
    In your paper, only list works that have been cited in the text; this is NOT a bibliography.
    Make sure that in-text citations match the References list.

Typing Instructions

5. Margins 1 inch; all must be the same size
6. Line Spacing

Double space all text, including title page information, abstract, headings, references, quotations, figure captions, table notes;

Single Space or 1.5 spacing for table (except note)

7. Type Size 12 pt.
8. Typeface Serif is preferred, sans serif is acceptable for tables and figures
    Preferred fonts are Ariel, Furtura, and Helvetica
9. Paragraph indents Indent the 1st line of each paragraph 0.5" (except the Abstract and long quotations)
    Keep the indent uniform throughout paper by using the first line indent
10. Hyphenation Use no space before or after, except when using a minus sign (with a space before but not after)
11. Right justification Do not right-justify
12. Manuscript Page Begin with Title Page (p. 1)
  Header Use the running head without the title "Running head:"
    Put on every page, left-justified along the same line but across from the page number
13. Pagination Begin on Title Page (p. 1) with the number 1
    Precede with page header
    Put on every page
    Right-justified so that the right side is 1 inch from right edge of paper, between the first line of text and the top edge of the paper
14. Running head Use label: Running head:
    Follow this with a shorter title in ALL CAPS
    Length should be no more than 50 characters including punctuation & spaces
    Place flush left across from, but on the same line as the page number
15. Headings  
  1st Level Centered
    First letter of important words in caps (title case)
    Text begins, indented on new line
  2nd Level Left-justified
    First letter of important words in caps (title case)
    Text begins, indented, on new line
  3rd level Indented
    lowercase parapgraph heading ending with a period (first letter of the first word is uppercase)
  4th level


    lowercase parapgraph heading ending with a period (first letter of the first word is uppercase)
  5th level Indented
    lowercase parapgraph heading ending with a period (first letter of the first word is uppercase)
16. Quotations  
  Short Less than 40 words
    Merge quotation into text
    Must be enclosed by double quotation marks
    Must include source: author name(s), date of publication, and page number(s)
  Long 40 or more words
    Use block style (indent every line 0.5" on left side [same as paragraph indent])
    Begin on a new line
    Double space all quotations
    Period ends long quote; source name(s), date, and page number(s) follow on same line in parentheses
    Do not use quotation marks

Referencing Material

17. Cite a source for each fact or idea--after every sentence if necessary. Over-reference rather than under-reference.
18. When paraphrasing a source, you must give author name(s) and date of publication. When doing this, keep name and date together. For example: Smith (1984) says. . . OR Some argue that . . . . (Smith, 1984).
19. When citing an original work that is quoted in a secondary source that you have read, use the following format: Smith says that . . . . (as cited in Jones, 1984, p. 324). In the reference list, use the secondary source information (the source that you gathered the information from)
20. If more than one work is cited at a time parenthetically, alphabetize the works by authors' last names and separate the two references by a semi-colon: (Jones, 1984; Smith, 1977)
21. Depending on the number of authors, use the following formats:
    1-2 authors: List all authors' names every time the source is cited & in the reference list. For example: Smith and Jones (2002).....OR The researchers found that....(Smith & Jones, 2002).
    3-5 authors: list all authors' names on the first citation; thereafter, use only the first author's name and et al. For example, Gorsky et al. (1984)... List all authors' names in the reference list.
    6+ authors: Use only the first author's name and et al. on every citation, including the first citation; in the References, list all authors' names
22. In the References list, make sure that each reference includes the necessary elements:
  Book Book Chapter Journal Article
    a. ALL of the authors' names
    b. name of article that was read
    c. name of book that was read
    d. name of chapter that was read
    e. name of journal in which article was found
    f. volume number of the journal
    g. page numbers of the article or chapter
    h. name of publisher
    i. location of publisher
state (if city is not well-known)
    j. Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)    

Order of elements in the reference list

Journal Article Author(s), Date, Article title, Journal Name (italicized), Volume Number, Page Numbers, doi:xxxxxxx.
Chapter Author(s), Date, Chapter Name, Book Name, Editor(s) of Book, Page Numbers, Location of Publisher, Publisher Name
Book Author(s) or Editor(s), Date, Book Name, Location of Publisher, Publisher Name
24. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in titles and subtitles for books, chapters, and articles (not for journal names).

Differences between MLA and APA in References formatting:

Authors' Names Use only the initial of the first name (and middle initial if given) and the last name for all authors.
  Order for all authors: Last name first, then first initial and middle initial.
Article Name No quotes around article or chapter names.
Book Chapter All editor and page number information goes into parentheses.
26. In references cited in parentheses and in the reference list, use the "&" instead of "and."


27. Commas and periods go inside quotation marks.
28. Colons and semi-colons go outside quotation marks.
29. One space between words and other elements in a sentence; after commas, semi-colons, colons, and periods.
30. The final period goes after the parentheses around the reference; for example: (Jones, 1984).
31. Abbreviate state names in the reference list, and use the standard post office, two-letter abbreviations (e.g., NY for "New York"; CA for "California"; IL for "Illinois"; MA for "Massachusetts"; CT for "Connecticut").

Correct Use of English

32. Use proper, formal English. This means no slang, colloquialisms, or contractions.
33. Do not start sentences with "so," "because," "but," or "however." All of these words are used in the middle of the sentence, after the verb.
34. Make sure there is agreement among nouns, pronouns, and verbs (e.g., "The child becomes more aggressive toward his or her siblings"; not "The child becomes more aggressive toward their siblings.").
35. Know the differences between these word pairs and use each word appropriately:
  • among & between
  • affect & effect
  • site & cite
36. Be sure the word that you want to use is the correct one for the meaning you are trying to communicate. Look the word up in the dictionary if you don't use it very often--or use a grammar checker.
37. Do not use more words than you need to convey an idea. Be succinct.
38. Sentences must contain a noun phrase (subject) and a verb phrase (predicate).
39. Do not run two sentences together with just a comma between them (this is called a "run-on" sentence).


40. Read your paper aloud slowly and carefully, watching for the things listed above as well as the following mistakes:
  • typographical errors, like left-out and transposed letters and left-out words
  • straggly type that is not aligned with the other characters in the line
  • inaccurate or missing reference information
  • nonsensical sentences
  • accuracy of quotations
  • misspelled words
41. If you find any of the above, correct them by changing the mistakes on the computer and reprinting the page involved.