Sources: Graham Stanton, The Gospels and Jesus (Oxford, 1989); David Wenham and Steve Walton, Exploring the New Testament: A Guide to the Gospels and Acts (IVP, 2001); Paul J. Achtemeier et al., Introducing the New Testament: Its Literature and Theology (Eerdmans, 2001); Darrell L. Bock, "Luke, Gospel Of," in Joel B. Green et al., eds., Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (IVP, 1992), 495-510.
A Very Connected Gospel: Contexts of the Gospel of Luke Textual: as the first of two volumes (Luke-Acts).
Cultural: rising to the rhetorical standards of Greco-Roman history (1:1-4, cf. Josephus, Contra Apionem 1.1.1-3, 2.1.1-2).
Authorial: is the author a companion of Paul ('we' passages in Acts 16:10ff)?
... Luke (Philemon 24, Colossians 4:14, Justin Martyr Dialogues 103:19)?
... a Gentile (Acts 1:19, Col. 4:10-14), or a Semite (many appeals to OT)?
Ecclesiological: an orderly account of the fulfillments of Theophilus' catechesis (1:1-4).
Missiological: framed by preaching the Kingdom and teaching the Lord Jesus Christ at the beginning and end.
Geographical (with travels rather than teaching blocks):
Introduction at Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem (1:1-2:52).
Preparation at Jordan and the wilderness (3:1-4:13).
Ministry and revelation in Galilee (4:14-9:50).
Rejection on the Way to Jerusalem (9:51-19:44, the 'travel narrative').
Vindication of innocence at Jerusalem (not Galilee; 19:45-24:53)....
(And from there to all Judea, Samaria, and the ends of the earth; Acts 1:8.)
Social: reversing social strata, explaining new (especially Jewish-Christian) relations in light of Jesus' life (Luke 9-13, 22-23).
Chronological: written after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 (19:41-44, 21:20-24, cf. Mark 13:14-20)? or before Paul's death in the late sixties (Acts 28:30-31) or even James' in 62?
Political: events are constantly situated in Roman imperial context (2:1-2, 3:1).
Salvific: Jesus' life is located within Israel's saga (Luke 1, cf. Acts 1).
Eschatological: Jesus fulfills old and new prophecies (9:21-22, 44, 18:33 and 24:6-8, 44) and equips his disciples to wait for the kingdom's appearing (17:20-37, 18:1-8, 19:11-27).
Cosmic and theological: Jesus is 'son of Adam, son of God' (3:23-38). Luke too adds these distinctives while basically affirming Mark's narrative! The result is a gospel more accessible to Romans, and the 'glue' of the NT and liturgical year.
A few highlights:
special to Luke
birth and childhood narratives (set geographically, politically, salvation-historically, and musically)
Jesus at Nazareth (literary artistry, Holy Spirit, Isaiah 61 [but not 61:2b] fulfilled, drama, rejection, mercy to Gentiles [cf. 13:46-51], Jesus moves on)
Sermon on the Plain and some 'reversal' stories following it
John the prophet and Jesus the Son juxtaposed (and later their disciples: Acts 18:24-19:1-7)
"Q" in Mt
Jesus travels to Jerusalem (and equips his disciples), despite opposition
Mk 14-15, Mt 26-27
passion narrative (Jesus the righteous sophos, leaders rather than people culpable)