Sources: Frances Young, The Making of the Creeds (Trinity);
Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith (T&T Clark); C. FitzSimons
Allison, The Cruelty of Heresy (Morehouse); William Placher, A History
of Christian Theology (Westminster).
1. Humanity without compromise
(Rom. 5:12-21, 1 Cor. 15, Heb. 2:14-18, 4:15-16)
2. Divinity without compromise (John 20:28, 1 Cor. 8:6, 1 Cor. 16:22, Phil.
3. Unity (or personhood) without compromise
Heresies = compromises
II. How Incarnation
Basic affirmations: Nicea, 325 and Constantinople, 381
- How are they one? Two schools of
thought on "hypostatic union":
- 1. Alexandria: "Word-flesh"
Christology (cf. John 1; Mary as theotokos)
- (Dangers: Docetism, Arianism,
Apollinarianism, Eutychian Monophysitism compromise Jesus' true humanity)
- 2. Antioch: "Word-man"
Christology (cf. Mark 1)
- (Dangers: Ebionism, Adoptionism,
Nestorianism compromise Jesus' unity and even divinity)
- Chalcedon's uncompromising compromise,
451 (Leo I):
- Jesus is "one person in/of
In Christ divinity and humanity are "without confusion, change, division,
- Communication of attributes (communicatio
- Each nature influences (without
compromising) the other
"That which is not assumed cannot be redeemed" (Cappadocians)
- Analogy: Red-hot iron (John of